Improvement of preventive fire protection at a tank farm

Tank farms are used for the storage of highly flammable and explosive substances; Consequently, preventive fire protection is of main importance. When rehabilitation of such a tank farm is deliberate, contractors typically recommend intensive – and thus pricey – measures. A fire-protection solution developed by TÜV SÜD demonstrates that an equal stage of security can be reached with a far more cost-effective answer. A central role in injury limitation is played by early fireplace detection using thermographic cameras.
Numerous tank farms all through Germany store petrol, diesel, kerosene or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). In contact with air, these highly flammable substances can form explosive mixtures. Given this, tank farms require particular measures within the area of preventive hearth safety. If rehabilitation of fire-protection methods turns into essential at an older tank farm, far-reaching measures ought to be taken, not solely by means of precaution but additionally to exclude attainable liability risks. And but not each measure that’s technologically feasible can additionally be needed in case of a rehabilitation, as may be seen from the example of a tank farm in Bavaria, Germany.
เกจปรับแรงดันแก๊ส is situated at a basin of a river port in Bavaria. The part of the tank farm in want of rehabilitation covers 24 tanks with a storage volume of between 600 and a pair of,000 cubic metres. The tank farm is used for intermediate storage of highly flammable fluids with flame points of < 21 levels Celsius, as outlined in the German hazardous substances legislation. In hearth inspections and on-site inspections after incidents, the inspectors had recognized main non-conformities in the fire-extinguishing system. To substitute the outdated and non-conforming system, an engineering agency submitted an in depth list of measures. These measures fully happy all regulatory requirements however represented a very cost-intensive resolution, requiring a full rehabilitation utilizing traditional extinguishing techniques. For the tank-farm operating firm, the prices of implementing these measures would have added as much as 1.7 million euros.
In hearth protection, the problem lies in connecting well-founded technological knowledge and authorized know-how. In practice this means harmonising affordable engineering providers and legal applications to obtain a cohesive, economically feasible and easily carried out fire-protection concept.
Alternative solution developed by TÜV SÜD
At the operating company’s request, TÜV SÜD’s third-party consultants validated the person measures and the cost-effectiveness of the rehabilitation plan submitted by the engineering firm. Owing to the large number of deficiencies identified in the tank farm, the consultants first prepared an inventory of priorities with the measures necessary to fulfil the protection necessities and obtain the protection aims. They arrived at the conclusion that not all of the proposed measures actually needed to be implemented. Starting from this finding, they then drew up an alternative fire-protection concept that might in the end cut back the projected prices by one third.
TÜV SÜD’s rehabilitation plan included the fire-protection infrastructure already in place at the tank farm, similar to a non-automatic foam extinguishing system with a complete foaming-agent provide of 10,500 litres distributed across two tanks, two submerged pumps in the port basin with a pump capacity of one hundred eighty m3 per hour to ensure water provide for fireplace preventing and sprinkling the shells and the roofs of the tanks, manual triggering of the shut-off valves and a transformer station powered by the regional vitality supplier. The feed-in of emergency energy was effected by the native professional hearth division.
The engineering agency, by contrast, had planned to switch the entire fire-extinguishing system. They wanted to install three mobile extinguishing-agent distribution techniques in container kind for distant managed sprinkling and foaming of the tanks. This solution would have required the installation of new electrical, operational and control techniques as well as new pipe routes connecting the extinguishing-agent distribution systems with the fire-fighting techniques within the tank fields. The prices for the three extinguishing-agent distribution methods in container kind alone would have added up to round 1.2 million euros.
Incipient fire combating state of affairs with intact energy provide and free access to the tank farm.
Implementation of three packages of measures
The alternative rehabilitation idea developed by TÜV SÜD, which also met the necessities of the Bavarian Building Code (BayBo [1]), offered for three essential packages of measures to attain the safety and safety aims.
First, set up of a fully automated infrared measuring system made by DIAS Infrared to ensure early hearth detection. The system’s seven thermographic cameras are installed on pan-tilt items. They detect adjustments in temperature at the surfaces of the tanks made of various materials and positioned within the space monitored by the cameras, earlier than these changes in temperature could cause a hearth. As the cameras can transfer, the areas to be monitored could be divided into sectors. The cameras then method these sectors cyclically in sequence. To protect the cameras against exterior influences, they are housed in ventilated and heated weatherproof enclosures (Fig. 1). Monitoring focuses totally on the protection units of the tanks, pumps and motors and on the filling systems on the tank-farm premises. The control room on the tank farm and the local skilled fireplace department are notified immediately as soon because the temperature exceeds a sure restrict. The measure bundle also includes remote triggering of the extinguishing-agent provide from the control centre and automation of the protection devices.
Incipient fire fighting situation with energy loss the place entry to the tank farm is blocked by a cargo prepare.
In addition, it covers rehabilitation of the sprinkler and foam-extinguisher system. In this context, TÜV SÜD’s answer offered for alternative of the leaking and corroded pipe sections with new pipes and for set up of three fastened foam-extinguishing techniques within the form of foam screens to struggle incipient fires immediately. In addition, a cellular foam monitor was deliberate as a backup.
A third focus area considerations safeguarding the power supply required for early hearth detection and hearth combating. According to the regional power supplier, energy outages could have a period of a minimum of half-hour. Given this, the tank-farm needed an independent power supply system that was ready to make sure energy supply for at least 2 hours. The experts relied on battery buffering and a diesel operated emergency energy unit to resolve this problem.
Fire protection should ensure achievement of the protection aims
Protection objectives and equivalent security degree reached
The fire-protection resolution presented by TÜV SÜD was agreed with each the tank farm’s working company, the municipal authority and the skilled fireplace department. The three measure packages also complied with the required protection aims and the safety ranges. And finally, they proved far cheaper than the solution initially proposed. Since rehabilitation of the tank farm, early hearth detection at the facet of improved fire-protection infrastructure has turn out to be a central a half of harm limitation. Since the rehabilitation idea was carried out, the tank-farm’s operating company – working with the professional hearth department – has been in a place to effectively counteract all attainable eventualities of incipient fireplace successfully and at an early stage, even in circumstances of power loss or when entry to the tank farm is blocked (see Figures 2 and 3).
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Classification beneath the Bavarian Building Code (Bayerische Bauordnung, BayBo)
Tank farms are installations of a particular sort and use (special structures). Their operation entails the dealing with and storing of extremely explosive or flammable substances. Protection measures and security precautions thus not solely fall within the operating company’s accountability but are also a matter of public interest. Given this, the BayBO stipulates requirements including materials requirements which, as “General clauses of fireside protection”, assist to support the protection objectives defined in Article 12. However, in accordance with article 3 (1) deviations from the technical constructing regulations are possible if an alternative solution is discovered that is equivalent in terms of fulfilling the final necessities in paragraph 1. In different phrases, the requirements laid down within the Building Code are deemed complied with if the widely recognised guidelines of architecture and technology are fulfilled.

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